Our history

On April 30, 1949, Interprovincial Pipe Line Company was officially incorporatedreceiving its charter from the Canadian federal government, and launching a success story that spans generations.

Originally envisioned as a pipeline to carry Alberta crude to refineries in Regina, following the Leduc No. 1 discovery, the scope of our system expanded across the Canadian prairies and into the United States Midwest even before the first shovel touched the ground. Construction of the original pipeline from Edmonton, AB to Superior, WI began in the winter of 1949-50, continued through a very wet spring of 1950, and wrapped up by late 1950 at a cost of C$73 million. On Oct. 4, 1950, Alberta Premier Ernest Manning and Canadian federal minister C.D. Howe opened the valve on IPL’s inaugural line to start moving oil eastward; the first oil arrived in Superior two months later, on Dec. 5, where it was stored in the Superior terminal tanks.

Our work was pivotal in spurring the growth of Western Canadian oil production. In our first full year of pipeline operations, we shipped 30.6 million barrels of oil. Today we transport 3 million barrels of oil every day on our Mainline and Express systems. Through the years, we’ve continued to open new markets for Canadian crude, and played a critical role in developing North American energy infrastructure.

On Feb. 27, 2017, Enbridge Inc. and Spectra Energy Corp. finalized the terms of a definitive merger agreement. The transaction created the largest energy infrastructure company in North America, and one of the largest in the world—with an enterprise value of approximately US$126 billion (C$166 billion) and a US$58 billion (C$75 billion) inventory of secured and potential capital growth projects. 

Here are some other significant moments in Enbridge’s 70-year history:

  • Expansion of the IPL system continued in 1953 with the extension of the pipeline from Superior to Sarnia, Ont. The line entered service in 1954, a development that provided a direct connection between the Alberta oil fields and Canada’s petro-chemical heartland in Ontario.
  • IPL’s mainline system continued to expand and grow through the 1950s and 1960s. IPL and its American subsidiary, Lakehead Pipe Line Company, connected to the Detroit market for the first time in 1960, expanded the system to Buffalo in 1963, and constructed the Chicago loop in 1968. IPL became North America’s largest crude oil carrier on a barrel-mile basis in 1963, and IPL’s average deliveries topped the one-million-barrels-per-day mark in 1972.
  • With the Canadian federal government seeking to ensure Canadian energy self-reliance in the mid-1970sand then-Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau speaking publicly in favor of a pipeline to Montreal—IPL completed Line 9 to Montreal through poor market conditions, labor shortages and a brutally cold ’75-76 winter construction season. After consultation with 2,200 landowners and 95 municipalities, governments and agencies, and an investment of C$247 million, the first oil was delivered to Montreal on June 2, 1976.
  • IPL completed its Norman Wells pipeline in April 1985, linking the oilfields of Norman Wells, in the Northwest Territories, to the Rainbow Pipeline system at Zama, AB.
  • IPL acquired Toronto-based Home Oil in July 1986, and relocated corporate offices to Albertathe pipeline business in Edmonton, the oil business in Calgary.
  • IPL changed its name to Interhome Energy Inc. in 1988, and in 1991 Interhome shareholders voted to create two separate companies—New Home Oil Company Ltd., a distinct publicly traded company; and Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., consisting of wholly owned subsidiaries Lakehead Pipe Line Company Inc. and Interprovincial Pipeline (NW) Ltd. In 1994, the company again changed its name to IPL Energy Inc.

  • In December 1996, in a very significant move, IPL Energy acquired Consumers’ Gas, Canada’s largest natural gas distribution system that served, at that time, more than one million customers in Ontario, Quebec and New York. The roots of what is now known as Enbridge Gas Inc. stretch all the way back to 1848.
  • On Oct. 7, 1998, IPL Energy officially became Enbridge, the name that combines “energy” with “bridge” and endures to this day. Enbridge built the Athabasca Pipeline in 1999, connecting Alberta’s oil sands to its mainline system at Hardisty, AB. Today, Enbridge is the leading pipeline operator in the Fort McMurray to Edmonton and Hardisty corridors, with 12 oil sands projects connected to the Enbridge system.
  • Also in 1999, Enbridge was awarded the exclusive franchise to develop and operate a natural gas distribution network for the province of New Brunswick.
  • In the early 2000s, Enbridge expanded its international interests, with transportation and storage projects in Spain and Colombia. Enbridge would sell its stake in those businesses in 2008 and 2009, respectively, but Enbridge International Inc. still actively explores new investment opportunities outside the U.S. and Canada.
  • On Oct. 30, 2001, Enbridge’s shares were first listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol ENB.
  • Enbridge invested in the SunBridge wind power project in Saskatchewan in 2002, beginning its portfolio in renewable energy investment that now tops C$8 billion and generates nearly 2,200 net MW of green energy, with a growing footprint in European offshore wind.
  • Enbridge completed the acquisition of Houston’s Midcoast Energy Resources in 2001giving the company an expanded presence in the natural gas transmission business, and significantly widening its geographical presence in North America.
  • In late 2003 and 2004, Enbridge acquired a number of U.S. midcontinental crude oil and liquids assetsincluding storage at the Cushing Terminal (Cushing, OK) and the Flanagan Terminal (Pontiac, IL), as well as the Ozark Pipeline and the Cushing-to-Chicago line, later reversed and renamed Spearhead. In late 2014, with the completion of the Flanagan South line, from Flanagan to Cushing, and the twinning of the Seaway Pipeline system, from Cushing to Port Arthur, TX, Enbridge created the North American pipeline industry's first large-volume, full-path solution for delivering Western Canadian crude to the Gulf Coast, the largest oil refining center in North America. 
  • In 2005, Enbridge acquired Shell Gas Transmission, which included ownership interests in 11 natural gas transmission and gas gathering pipelines in five major offshore Gulf of Mexico corridors.
  • Through the 2017 merger with Spectra, Enbridge's network expanded to include: the 8,500-plus-mile Texas Eastern Transmission natural gas pipeline, which stretches from the Gulf Coast to the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast; Ontario-based gas utility Union Gas; an ownership stake in DCP Midstream, one of America’s largest producers of natural gas liquids and processors of natural gas; a series of eight U.S. natural gas storage facilities in Texas, Louisiana, Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, as well as the Dawn Hub in Ontario, Canada's largest underground storage facility; and the Express and Platte pipelines, which helped strengthen our liquids network.
  • Our cross-continent gas transmission business continued to grow with the Sabal Trail Transmission (July 2017), NEXUS Gas Transmission (October 2018) and Valley Crossing (November 2018) pipelines all entering service in a span of 18 months.
  • In September 2021, Enbridge acquired the Enbridge Ingleside Energy Center (EIEC), the largest oil storage and export terminal by volume in the United States, located near Corpus Christi, TX.
  • In November 2022, Enbridge and partners celebrated the inauguration of France's first offshore wind farm, the Saint-Nazaire project, in the Bay of Biscay. Saint-Nazaire joined a growing suite of European offshore wind projects for Enbridge that also includes Rampion, in the English Channel, and the Hohe See and Albatros wind farms, in the North Sea off Germany's northern coast.
  • In September 2023, Enbridge acquired three gas utilities from Dominion Energy: the East Ohio Gas Company, also known as Dominion East Ohio, which serves more than 1.2 million customers across more than 400 communities and 27 counties in Ohio; Questar Gas, which serves about 1.2 million customers across Utah—that’s about 97% of households in the state—as well as regions in southwestern Wyoming and Idaho, in addition to its related Wexpro companies; and the Public Service Company of North Carolina, also known as PSNC Energy, which serves more than 600,000 customers across 28 counties in North Carolina.

Through both acquisition and greenfield development, we’ve expanded well beyond our original business as a crude oil carrier.

Our gas transportation pipeline systems, including Texas Eastern, Alliance, Valley Crossing, Vector, Gulfstream, Maritimes & Northeast and others, crisscross North America and ship billions of cubic feet of natural gas each day.

Enbridge Gas Inc., formed by the amalgamation of Enbridge Gas Distribution and Union Gas to begin 2019, was already North America's largest gas utility by volume, serving 3.8 million residential, commercial, institutional and industrial customers in Ontario and Quebec. Upon closing of the three September 2023 acquisitions, our gas utility is expected to deliver 9.3 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) and serve about 7,000 customers across North America.

We’ve also delivered value. Since shares of Enbridge and its predecessor companies began trading more than 50 years ago, our shareholders have enjoyed an average 13.5 per cent annual return.

Just as we were in 1949, Enbridge remains a company that looks beyond the horizon to chart a course for success. Through our investment in renewable energy technologies, such as onshore and offshore wind farms, solar operations, a geothermal project, and waste heat recapture technology, we are committed to safely, reliably, and sustainably delivering the energy North America counts on to power our society and the economy.